Category Archives: Publications

Photocurable bioresorbable adhesives as functional intefaces between flexible bioelectronic devices and soft biological tissues

Soft interface materials for joining bioelectronic devices with biological tissues


  1. Flexible electronic/optoelectronic systems that can physically interface with soft biological tissue surfaces offer revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for various diseases.
  2. However, current approaches to coupling the tissue-device interfaces either through surgical sutures, staples, cuffs, etc., damage the tissue and the devices and often result in adverse immune responses and mechanical instabilities.


  1. We introduce a functional adhesive bioelectronic-tissue interface material (BTIM), which is mechanically compliant, electrically conductive, and optically transparent. The material can bond to the surface of tissue and the device and provide stable adhesion for several days to months.
  2. We demonstrate the capabilities of this material in live animal models that includes device applications ranging from battery-free optoelectronic systems for deep-brain optogenetics to wireless millimeter-scale pacemakers and flexible multi electrode epicardial arrays.


Yang Q, Wei T, Yin RT, Wu M, Xu Y, Koo J, Choi YS, Xie Z, Chen SW, Kandela I, Yao S, Deng Y, Avila R, Liu TL, Bai W, Yang Y, Han M, Zhang Q, Haney CR, Benjamin Lee K, Aras K, Wang T, Seo MH, Luan H, Lee SM, Brikha A, Ghoreishi-Haack N, Tran L, Stepien I, Aird F, Waters EA, Yu X, Banks A, Trachiotis GD, Torkelson JM, Huang Y, Kozorovitskiy Y, Efimov IR, Rogers JA. Photocurable bioresorbable adhesives as functional interfaces between flexible bioelectronic devices and soft biological tissues. Nat Mater. 2021 Jul 29;. doi: 10.1038/s41563-021-01051-x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 34326506.

Book chapter: conformal electronics therapy for defibrillation


Cardiac Bioelectric Therapy: Mechanisms and Practical Applications

Chapter 38

Conformal Electronics Therapy for Defibrillation


Kedar K. Aras, John A. Rogers, Igor R. Efimov


Defibrillation remains the only effective therapy against sudden cardiac death. However, the current coil-based lead ICD devices are limited by high defibrillation threshold (DFT) and low arrhythmia sensing resolution, which can result in inappropriate and painful shocks adversely affecting the quality of life. Emerging classes of materials and mechanics concepts in the field of flexible and stretchable electronics have created new opportunities for integrating high-performance electronics with the human body and its organs and various tissues. These conformal electronics devices offer a platform for high-definition arrhythmia sensing to minimize inappropriate shocks and improve therapy and high-definition therapy delivery circuit to reduce DFT.

Chromatin Accessibility of human mitral valves and functional assessment of MVP Risk Loci

rs6723013 is a potential causal variant at IGFBP5/TNS1 MVP-associated locus


  1. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valvopathy that can lead to heart failure and sudden death. However, the causes of MVP development are still poorly understood.
  2. Functional genomic studies are needed to better characterize MVP associated variants and target genes


  1. We used ATAC-Seq (assay for transposes-accessible chromatin using sequencing) genomic annotation technique in combination with 4C-Seq (circular chromosome conformation capture, coupled to high-throughput sequencing), to describe unprecedented genome-wide chromatin profiles from human pathogenic and non-pathogenic mitral valves.
  2. The experiments also provided evidence for plausible causal variants for rs2641440 at SMG6/SRR locus and rs6723013 at IGFBP2/IGFBP5/TNS1 locus. In addition, we also identified several target genes including SRR, HIC1, and DPH1 at SMG6/SRR locus.


Kyryachenko S, Georges A, Yu M, Berrandou T, Guo L, Bruneval P, Rubio T, Gronwald J, Baraki H, Kutschka I, Aras K, Efimov IR, Norris RA, Voigt N, Bouatia-Naji N. Chromatin Accessibility of Human Mitral Valves and Functional Assessment of MVP Risk Loci. Circ Res. 2021 Jan 28;. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317581. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33508947.

Catheter -integrated soft multilayer electronic arrays for multiplexed sensing and actuation during cardiac surgery

Multimodal multiplexed soft sensors and actuators for minimally invasive surgery


  1. Catheters are widely used for minimally invasive therapies such as atrial fibrillation ablation, intravascular stents, etc. In addition, they are also used for capturing information during procedures such as measuring temperature, pressure, electrograms etc.
  2. However, these catheters are limited by mechanical rigidity, low spatial densities, single function capability necessitating use of multiple catheters to acquire critical information.


  1. We have designed a novel flexible, stretchable and tissue conforming electronics device integrated with a balloon catheter that supports simultaneous high-density spatiotemporal mapping of temperature, pressure, and electrograms.
  2. In addition, our device allows for programmable electrical stimulation, radio frequency ablation and irreversible electroporation.
  3. This novel device, the first of its kind, anywhere in the world, will eventually enable physicians to acquire a rich set of physiological information and complete surgeries and deliver therapies in shorter times than currently possible, with a single instrumented catheter system.


Mengdi Han*, Lin Chen*, Kedar Aras*, Cunman Liang, Xuexian Chen, Hangbo Zhao, Kan Li, Ndeye Rokhaya Faye, Bohan Sun, Jae-Hwan Kim, Wubin Bai, Quansan Yang, Yuhang Ma, Wei Lu, Enming Song, Janice Mihyun Baek, Yujin Lee, Clifford Liu, Jeffrey B. Model, Guanjun Yang, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Yonggang Huang, Igor R. Efimov, John A. Rogers. Catheter-integrated soft multilayer electronic arrays for multiplexed sensing and actuation during cardiac surgery. Nature Biomedical Engineering (2020).

Genetic algorithm based model of action potential


  1. Computer models use patient specific tissue geometry and cardiac fiber orientation to generate clinically relevant simulations of human cardiac action potentials.
  2. However, none of the models take into account tissue-specific, person-specific, and pathology-specific gene expression profiles which all are known to affect the action potential morphology and propagation dynamics.


  1. A novel modification of genetic algorithm which determines personalized parameters of cardiac action potential based on set of human action potentials recorded at different heart rates.
  2. A mRNA based model that can predict action potential waveform at different heart rates with high precision and which makes it possible to map gene expression profile to cardiac function.


Smirnov D, Pikunov A, Syunyaev R, Deviatiiarov R, Gusev O, Aras K, Gams A, Koppel A, Efimov IR. Genetic algorithm-based personalized models of human cardiac action potential. PLoS One. 2020;15(5):e0231695. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231695. eCollection 2020. PubMed PMID: 32392258.