Chapter 36 – Innovation in Cardiovascular Bioelectronics
Rose T. Yin, Yeon Sik Choi, Kedar K. Aras, Helen S. Knight, Alana N. Miniovich, and Igor R. Efimov
Advances in materials science have enabled new bioelectronics platforms for novel approaches to medicine. Bioelectronics for disease diagnosis and treatment that were once bulky have become miniaturized and lightweight. The rigid geometries that were previously incompatible with tissues and organs are now flexible and stretchable to conform to organ curvatures. Energy sources dependent on batteries can now harvest energy from mechanical motion, static electricity, light, ultrasound, and electromagnetic fields.
Materials at the tissue – bioelectronics interface inducing significant foreign body responses have been replaced by materials such as hydrogels and graphene that are much more biocompatible. These innovations have enabled the development of bioelectronics for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as monitors, ablation, pacemaker, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy.
This portfolio of bioelectronic devices collects high-resolution data across multiple parameters and can deliver the pertinent electrotherapy. The bioelectronic conformal devices serve as the foundation of the medical internet-of-things, which will ultimately improve the accessibility of medicine, the efficiency of the healthcare system, and enhance human health.