A transient, closed-loop network of wireless, body-integrated devices for autonomous electrotherapy

Transient closed-loop system for temporary cardiac pacing


  1. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) introduce risk of infections as well as limitations on patient quality of life.
  2. There is a need for minimally invasive devices that provide autonomous electrotherapy over a time frame that matches post-operative needs.


  1. We propose a transient, closed-loop system for temporary cardiac pacing that incorporates a wireless network of components including:
    • Temporary, bioresorbable, stretchable epicardial pacemaker,
    • Bioresorbable steroid-eluting interface that minimizes local inflammation and fibrosis
    • Subcutaneous, bioresorbable power harvesting unit
    • Set of soft, skin-interfaced sensors that capture ECG, HR etc., to track patient physiology.
    • Wireless RF module that transfers power to the harvesting unit
    • Soft skin-interfaced haptic actuator that communicates via mechanical vibrations
    • Handheld device with software module for real time data visualization and automated adaptive control
  2. The bioresorbable module for cardiac pacing undergoes complete dissolution by natural biological processes after a defined operating time frame. Moreover, the wireless battery recharge through the skin eliminates the need for transcutaneous wires.


Choi YS, Jeong H, Yin RT, Avila R, Pfenniger A, Yoo J, Lee JY, Tzavelis A, Lee YJ, Chen SW, Knight HS, Kim S, Ahn HY, Wickerson G, Vázquez-Guardado A, Higbee-Dempsey E, Russo BA, Napolitano MA, Holleran TJ, Razzak LA, Miniovich AN, Lee G, Geist B, Kim B, Han S, Brennan JA, Aras K, Kwak SS, Kim J, Waters EA, Yang X, Burrell A, San Chun K, Liu C, Wu C, Rwei AY, Spann AN, Banks A, Johnson D, Zhang ZJ, Haney CR, Jin SH, Sahakian AV, Huang Y, Trachiotis GD, Knight BP, Arora RK, Efimov IR, Rogers JA. A transient, closed-loop network of wireless, body-integrated devices for autonomous electrotherapy. Science. 2022 May 27;376(6596):1006-1012. doi: 10.1126/science.abm1703. Epub 2022 May 26. PMID: 35617386.